This following research paper describes about Intellectual Disability and its limitations. And some of the common characteristics of ID. It also provides the comprehensive view of modifications, accommodations and assistive technology and transition planning to assist disabilities. Some agencies and inclusion tips are also mentioned. Lastly, concluding the article formally by giving final suggestions.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as mental retardation, is categorized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a deficiency of skills required for continuous living. People having intellectual disabilities can and be able to learn new skills, but they are able to learn them more slowly. There are different degrees of intellectual disability; from lenient to intense. This disability originates before the age of 18. (Definition of Intellectual Disability, n.d.)
Common characteristics of Intellectual disability:
There are many signs of intellectual disability. For example, individuals with intellectual disability may:
- Have trouble speaking,
- Find it hard to remember things,
- Not understand how things work,
- Have difficulty understanding social rules,
- Have difficulty seeing the result of their actions,
- Have trouble solving problems, and/or
- Have trouble thinking with logic and more
Limitations of Intellectual Disability:
Someone with Intellectual disability has limitations in two areas. These areas are:
- Intellectual Functioning: Also known as IQ, this is known as a person’s ability to learn reason, make decisions, and solve problems.
- Adaptive Behavior: is the collection of conceptual, social, and applied skills which are learned and completed by people in their daily lives like being able to communicate efficiently, cooperate with others, and take care of one. And these are defined as:
- Conceptual skills: Literacy and language; time, money, number concepts; and self-direction.
- Social skills: Social responsibility, interpersonal skills, self-esteem, acceptance, caution, social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized.
- Practical skills: actions of daily living (personal care), work-related skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone. (Tracy)
Analysis of ways for addressing the needs of students within this disability category:
There are many ways that disabilities can affect the ability to perform effectively on the job. Levels of disability and ability are unique to an individual. Most accommodations are simple, creative alternatives for traditional ways of doing things. Following are some of the strategies, accommodations, modifications and assistive technology analysis that will help people having intellectual disabilities to participate at their full in work-based learning experiences. (Dwyer)
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Strategies to address the needs of individual with intellectual disability:
It is important to implement strategies that address the needs of the individual. Following are few strategies that can help in addressing the need of an individual with Intellectual disability:
- Understanding the Needs of Individuals with Disabilities
- Managing Time and Classroom Activities
- Teaching Techniques
- Assessment Practices (Doka)
Accommodations for students with disabilities: It is very important to accommodate those individuals who have intellectual disabilities. So that they can be provided with normal environment where they can act like normal beings. Following are some of the modifications and accommodations for such individuals:
Assistive Technology: Implementing accommodations involves anticipating problems students with disabilities may have with instruction or assessment activities. Students may need to use some type of assistive technology to overcome or mitigate the effects of their disability. Assistive technology encompasses a wide range of tools and techniques. Some low-tech tools include pencil and tool grips, color-coding, and picture diagrams. High-tech tools include electronic equipment, such as a talking calculator, computer with word prediction software, and variable speech control audio recorder for playback. (Assistive Technology, Accommodations, and the Americans with Disabilities Act, 2001)
Instruction and Assessment: Suggestions for accommodations in specific areas of instruction and assessment are as following:
- Completing assignments
- Test preparation
- Taking tests
Learning and Work Environment: Accommodations may be needed that involve:
- Changes to the physical features or organization of the school or classroom,
- Changes to the learning environment may include alterations to grouping arrangements, behavioral expectations,
- Classroom management procedures,
- And the physical setting.
Job Requirements: Job accommodations are defined on an individual basis. Some accommodations involve simple adaptations, while others require more sophisticated equipment or adjustments to physical facilities. The instructor and employer will need to analyze job tasks, basic qualifications and skills needed to perform the tasks, and the kinds of adjustments that can be made to ensure that performance standards will be met.
Modifications for students with disabilities:
Modifications to the expectations or outcomes of the curriculum may be necessary for a student with a disability. Modifications may include modified program or course requirements, concepts or skills significantly below the targeted grade level, or alternate curriculum goals.
Impact of Modifications: When considering modifications, it is important to evaluate the long-range impact of changing expectations. Students with disabilities who are not challenged to reach the same level of achievement as their nondisabled peers may not be able to earn a standard diploma in high school or a career certificate or degree from a postsecondary institution. Modifications may also limit the types of careers and occupations in which students can find work. (HOW TO SELECT, ADMINISTER, AND EVALUATE ACCOMMODATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES, 2011)
Modified Occupational Completion Points: Career education programs are different at the high school level. The student performance standards may be modified as long as they are aimed at fulfilling the requirements of the specific job selected by the individual student. Teams may modify the curriculum and identify a completion point that falls between established completion points, known as modified occupational points.
Transition planning for students with Intellectual disabilities:
Transition is usually described as a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed to promote successful progress to and from school. Transition relates to entry into and exit from each educational level, such as pre-school to elementary school, elementary school to secondary school, and secondary school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education (both university and college), vocational training, apprenticeships, employment, adult education, independent living and community participation. Successful transition for all students including those who have learning disabilities is based on:
- the student’s identified needs
- the student’s recognized strengths, skills and competencies
- the student’s interests
- the student’s preferences
- the student’s short and long term goals
- the student’s past experiences, including academic achievements, co-curricular and
- Volunteer involvements at school and in the community. (Tracy)
Agencies available for intellectually disabled:
There are many agencies all around the world that are catering the needs of individuals with intellectual disability that includes:
- National Intellectual Disability Care Agency (NIDCA)
- U.S. Organizations for People with Intellectual Disabilities:
- The ArcLink
- Find my roommate
- Think College and many more.
- Intellectual Disabilities’ agency of the New River Valley (IDA)
The tips below are general guidelines to help make simple accommodations:
- Academic Accommodations: Teachers may need to make adaptations to the curriculum and learning activities in order to fully include these students.
- Physical and Sensory Accommodations: This includes hearing impairments, visual impairments and physical disabilities.
- Behavioral Accommodations: It is important to have well managed and consistent behavioral plan in order to help students learn more appropriate behaviors.
Intellectual disability is a very common disability. It should be eliminated by using different techniques that come in handy and that are mentioned in this particular research paper. Children with such disability should be accommodated accordingly. And there are a lot of ways through which a child can get accommodations. These pupils need special care and attention. People with such disabilities are often not seen as full citizens of society. There should be movement for self-advocacy, self determination and self direction by the people with intellectual disabilities. And there is a need to eliminate it either with the help of technology or either with providing comprehensive treatment.
(2001). Assistive Technology, Accommodations, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation and Rehabilitation Research. Cornell University. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/extension/files/download/Assistive_Tech.pdf
Definition of Intellectual Disability. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2014, from Aaidd.org: http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition#.UwCy9vmSxvA
Doka, K. J. (n.d.). Individuals with intellectual disabilities: Struggling with loss and grief. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from http://www.rescarenz.org.nz/Publications & Papers/ciwid.pdf
Dwyer, K. P. (n.d.). Disciplining Students With Disabilities. National Association of School Psychologists (. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/discipline.stud.dis.dwyer.pdf
(2011). HOW TO SELECT, ADMINISTER, AND EVALUATE ACCOMMODATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Department of Education. Nebraska: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION . Retrieved February 16, 2014, from http://www.education.ne.gov/assessment/pdfs/Accommodations_Guidelines_Students_Disabilities_Nov_2011.pdf
Tracy, J. (n.d.). Intellectual disability. Centre for Developmental Health Victoria. Centre for Developmental Health Victoria. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from Nichcy.org: http://www.cddh.monash.org/assets/documents/intellectual-disability.pdf